Woman’s HIV in remission for 14 months after stem cell transplant, researchers say
(Gray News) - A woman’s HIV is in remission after receiving a cord blood stem cell transplant, according to the National Institutes of Health.
Researchers say this is the third known case of HIV remission in an individual receiving stem cell transplant treatment.
The woman received the cord blood cell transplant to treat acute myeloid leukemia and has had no detectable levels of HIV for 14 months.
She was part of a study that began in 2015 designed to show the outcomes of up to 25 participants living with HIV who underwent a CCRΔ5/Δ32 cord blood cell transplant for treatment of cancer, hematopoietic disease, or another underlying disease.
Scientists theorize using chemotherapy to kill off cancerous immune cells in HIV patients and replacing them with the specific genetic mutation allows them to develop an HIV-resistant immune system, according to the report.
In this case, researchers said the woman had been infected with HIV for four years at the time she was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia.
She successfully underwent chemotherapy and was in remission. At that time, her HIV was well-controlled with other medications but detectable.
The woman received a stem cell transplant in 2017, supplemented with adult donor cells from a relative.
“After receiving the stem cell transplant, she engrafted with 100% cord blood cells at day 100 and had no detectable HIV,” the report read.
The study team believes this third case suggests that CCRΔ5/Δ32 cord stem cell transplants should be considered to achieve HIV remission for patients who require such a transplant for other diseases.
According to the report, the first known case experienced HIV remission for 12 years and was deemed cured of the disease. He died of leukemia in September 2020.
The second case has been in HIV remission for more than 30 months.
The New York Times reports the first two patients were treated with stem cells used in bone marrow transplants.
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